Leopards of India’s Silicon City
Photos and story by ILCW member Sanjay Gubbi (India)
Previously published in National Geographic Big Cats Initiative on January 4, 2016
Bangalore, a southern Indian city, has become synonymous with information technology and is one of a few metropolis in the world that hosts large wild mammals such as elephants, leopards, sloth bears and even tigers within a distance of a few kilometers from the center of the city. Among them, two species make headlines, quite often – the elephant and the leopard.
Part of the city outskirts, where rural life continues to linger despite the contrasting glitzy city reports, livestock lifting by leopards are common. Occasionally, the residents of apartment complexes in the southern side of the city report leopard sightings. When such incidents are reported, the response is a demand to relocate (translocation) the leopards. In the past five years the forest department, due to various pressures, has captured six leopards from the city outskirts, relocating four of them to various other locations.
Concerned about the leopard conflict and captures, I started monitoring the presence of leopards and conflict incidences around the country’s IT capital. From time to time we camera-trapped the areas where there were requests from local residents who were afraid of leopards lurking in their area and the government.
Camera-trapping gives us wonderful insights into the lives of these spotted cats. Many times when we install these automatically triggered photo-documenting devices, leopards were captured walking past our camera traps. At times, the sequence of images was more interesting. At one location we had citizens walking past our camera traps on their evening walks. A few hours later, young spotted cats walked past the same camera traps taking their own images with bright-lit garden lights as their backdrop. In some locations, young school children walked by displaying their playful performances for the cameras, and a few hours later the stealthy predator would imperceptibly appear as the human activities drew to a close.
A government institute that experimented on fodder seeds in northwestern part of the city invited us to document the presence of leopards on their campus as some security personnel reported sighting a large cat. The institute cultivated maize and other similar tall standing crops, and leopards revealed their presence in these fields but disappeared as soon as the crops were harvested. Tall standing crops, such as maize, perhaps acted as a good cover for the field.
The spatial distribution of the spotted cat showed us a trend. Leopards are found from the northwest to the southern side of the city in a semi-circular form following the presence of rocky outcrops or forest patches. The message seems to be clear in Bangalore. Leopards survive in areas where there is a mosaic of natural forests, rocky outcrops and sub-optimal habitats such as maize fields that provide temporary cover for the animal to move between natural habitats. They are certainly not living like bandicoots that hide in the midst of high-rise buildings inside drains and culverts during the day and venture out eking food at night. They are not living amidst a sea of humans or amidst residential and commercial buildings. I wouldn’t call these urban leopards. Natural habitats seem to be the key for the leopards’ survival.
Daylight shot of the same area where men were walking
However, I wonder how long these animals would survive on the borders of this ever-growing city. Human population in Bangalore grew by 47% during 2001 and 2011, increasing it from 6.5 to 9.6 million currently matching the population of New York metropolitan area. The size of the city has increased over 300% in the last 20 years. Many villages and forest patches around the city have now been merged into the city limits. Forest areas have primarily made way for industries, housing complexes, and other developmental activities.
As urban areas expand, the natural habitats of leopards shrink. The animal could possibly go extinct locally or survive if there would be continuity to other natural habitats. For instance, leopards will continue to exist in Bannerghatta National Park (100 square miles) that adjoins the southern side of Bangalore city, despite the land around Bannerghatta becoming highly urbanized. The northern and western edges of the national park are already ensconced in a sea of development. So, the leopards that live inside Bannerghatta could venture into urbanized areas due to easy access of domestic food sources, including dogs. Not an ideal situation for the leopard or people. However, deforestation in Bannerghatta could result in a loss of leopards in this area.
Apart from developing scientific information and database of the leopards around the city, we reached out to the local population. We regularly carry out outreach activities to bring awareness about leopards and ways to respond to leopards sightings in the vicinity. The multitude of people we had to speak to made an interesting case study by itself. Retired professionals, security personnel, space research scientists, central security force personnel, students, construction workers, villagers, farmers the list goes on. Hence, our outreach activities had to be in the local language Kannada, the national language Hindi, and English, tailored to suit the diversity within the communities of the city.
The responses of the communities towards leopards are very varied. On the outskirts of Bangalore, leopards are found among two distinct kinds of communities. Educated professionals, who are not economically dependent on land or animal husbandry, who prefer to reside in areas that have a mix of natural leopard habitats and agricultural landscape. Secondly, the communities who reside in similar ecological landscapes but whose lifestyles are largely rural in nature, and continue to depend upon farming and livestock for livelihoods.
There seems to be better acceptability among people whose livelihoods does not depend on farming or livestock. However, anxiety about leopards was still present. For instance, a school campus is partially used by leopards that has natural forests in it and abuts a multiple use forest patch. The alternative school administration were happy to co-exist with their spotted cats but still wanted to take necessary steps that did not make them legally liable if something went wrong. In addition, they took all necessary precautions to minimize any untoward incidences. However, communities that were dependent on agriculture and livestock farming did not want leopards in their vicinity. If the wild cat didn’t pose a threat to livelihoods there seem to be better acceptability.
Bangalore is an excellent example for the changing ecological, social and economic landscapes of the country, demonstrating the altering fate of some of the wildlife species. Leopards are being compressed into ever-shrinking areas of wilderness. Around Bangalore, they have disappeared from areas where these large cats were reported as recently as in the past five years. We will perhaps see more of such scenarios in the country where leopards lose out to the expanding urbanization. At the outset, other cities near Bangalore such as Mysore, Tumkur, Chitradurga are all candidates where this scenario could repeat due to expanding urbanization and loss of leopard habitats.
Loss and conversion of leopards’ natural habitat seem to be an important driver for this spotted cat to move to sub-optimal habitats.
A comprehensive plan where leopard habitats that occur adjoining to cities and towns needs to be drawn for long-term leopard preservation in the country, which is one of the strongholds of these spotted feline in the world.
The Best Wilderness Is Hidden
By ILCW Member Linda M. Hasselstrom
Linda M. Hasselstrom ranches and writes in western South Dakota. She’s been called a rancher/environmentalist as if this is a contradiction, but it’s not. (Learn more here)
You won’t find the healthiest wild lands in the nation on recreation maps. These secret spots have no toilet paper or beer cans in the bushes; no crowds, no loud music, no admission fees.
No motels, camp sites, toilets, souvenirs or asphalt paths. No gas stations; no boat ramps; no trash cans.
The abundant wildlife never begs along the road but follows dusty paths marked by cloven hooves and padded paws.
The catch? The best wild areas are ranchers’ private pastures. Many would welcome interested visitors, but you can’t take your vacation there. So why should you care?
The fragile grassland of the Great Plains protects the nation’s food supply and replenishes our air, water and wildlife. More than 70 percent of our native prairie has been plowed, but little-known plants and animals still live on range lands.
Studies by various agencies show that working landscapes harbor more biodiversity and generate more of nature’s services-- clean air, water, and wildlife-- than settled landscapes or parks. Privately-owned wild ecosystems, closed to the public, remain dynamic and heterogeneous.
Critics of beef production usually refer, without saying so-- and perhaps without understanding the difference-- to beef raised or fattened in a feedlot. Grazing animals produce a smaller carbon footprint, and perennial grassland, savanna, and woodland sequesters more carbon than cornfields or annual forage.
Financially, we all benefit from ranching. Ranch owners pay more in taxes than they consume in services-- the opposite of settled areas and subdivisions. Unlike most manufacturers, ranchers don’t set the price of their products by adding a profit to costs. The money they receive for their cattle depends on who’s bidding that day, a process often influenced by factors outside their control.
Alison M. Jones, founder and director of No Water No Life, and ILCW member, is the latest recipient of the Philip Hyde Environmental Grant from the North American Nature Photography Association (NANPA). Jones received this award for her project of transcribing and posting nine interviews of scientists, stakeholders and stewards in six North American case-study watersheds: the Columbia River Basin, the Raritan River Basin, and the Mississippi River Basins. For more information about No Water No Life and to take the Watershed Survey, go here.
The International League of Conservation Writers is a forum to bring writers together from around the world who are writing to promote wilderness, nature, conservation, or using other means to protect and restore the natural areas, habitats, animals, and plants of our planet. ILCW will present periodic writing awards to authors who excel in this field.
International League of Conservation Writers
Writing to inspire the love of nature and a passion for its protection.
Philip Hyde (1921-2006)
Philip Hyde’s photographs have helped protect such national treasures as the Grand Canyon, Dinosaur National Monument, Denali, Tongass National Forest, Canyonlands, the Coast Redwoods, Point Reyes, King’s Canyon, the North Cascades, Oregon Cascades, High Sierra Wilderness, and many others.
Cartoon by ILCW member Rohan Chakravarty, www.greenhumour.com.
May 14-21, 2016
Northern Serbia Owls and Raptors Sprint Tour. Led by David Lindo, The Urban Birder.
May 21-28, 2016
Latvia Owls, Woodpeckers and Spring Migration.
Led by David Lindo, The Urban Birder with Sacha Barbato
June 18-26, 2016
Slovenia Beauty and Beasts Spring Tour.
Led by David Lindo, The Urban Birder. Info
July 30-August 13, 2016
Peru: From the Concrete Jungle to the Amazon Jungle.
Led by David Lind0o, The Urban Birder.
Sept. 18-25, 2016
Extremadura, Spain: Bustards, Sandgrouse and Vultures!
Led by David Lindo, The Urban Birder and Extremadur-based Martin Kelsey. Info
Sept. 30-Oct. 7, 2016
Autumnal Portugal: Lisbon Estuaries, Alentejo and Algarve Regions.
Led by David Lindo, The Urban Birder and Joao Jara. Info
Sept. 30-Oct. 11, 2016
A 12-day Peruvian Adventure for Woman Writers
Space is limited to 12 women
Discover the Sacred Valley, Patacancha, Cusco, and Machu Picchu. Watch the nimble fingers of the women weavers with their vibrant strands of wool. Open the pages of your journal and weave your own tapestry with word. Travel with ILCW member Page Lambert. To find more information about the trip click here.
ILCW now on Facebook
ILCW members, please check out the ILCW Facebook page and add content. Tell us what you are working on, what changes you see in the area of conservation (good and bad) in your area, include news from you: have you recently won any awards or accolades? Have you recently published a new book or article or perhaps finished a piece of art, performance piece, photo that glorifies the natural world? This page is for you, please enjoy and generate interest in ILCW and what we do.
Do you have news?
Let us know if you have won an award, written a new book, or launched a creative endeavor to bring awareness to conservation. Chances are the ILCW membership is not aware of these things, so be sure and tell us. Send items to: email@example.com.
Resources for ILCW Members
Forces of Nature: Environmental Elders Speak
This website is packed with informative interviews by environmental leaders. The aim is to record and share first-person accounts of key decisions, case studies and stories that can assist today’s decision makers defend our natural heritage.
Forces of Nature: Environmental Elders Speak is a project of Resource Renewal Institute (RRI), which has developed original solutions to complex environmental problems for over 25 years. RRI launched the Environmental Elders Program to tap a reservoir of human knowledge and experience within the fields of environmental policy and activism, natural resource management and human health – and provide access to a collection of best practices and case studies to affect current environmental affairs.
Borrowing from oral history and autobiography, RRI’s video project Forces of Nature: Environmental Elders Speak brings together casual anecdotes with detailed accounts, the videos jump between the personal and the universal, offering stories of environmental battles won and lost so that future generations can be better prepared for challenges ahead. Together these stories illustrate the dynamic tapestry of nature and the common threads that unite us globally in the fight to protect our most precious natural resources and special places for future generations.
To view the site and see the interviews
Looking for Creative People Who Appreciate Nature
Do you have a friend or a colleague who is passionate about Nature and believes that we should protect what we have for future generations? ILCW welcomes all creative people (not just writers) who use their talent to bring awareness to the plight of our natural world. Have them apply to be an ILCW member at http://www.ilcwriters.org/application.html.
“What we are doing to the forests of the world is but a mirror reflection of what we are doing to ourselves and to one another.” ― Mahatma Gandhi
International League of Conservation Writers ● 4690 Table Mountain Dr., Suite 100 ● Golden, Colorado, USA 80403 ● Phone: 303-277-1623 ● www.ilcwriters.org
Content copyright 2010-2015. International League of Conservation Writers. All rights reserved.
International League of Conservation Writers
4690 Table Mountain Dr., Suite 100
Golden, Colorado, USA 80403
Content copyright 2010-2015
International League of Conservation Writers.
All rights reserved.